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Q41. - (Topic 2)
A router is running three routing processes: RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP, each configured with default characteristics. Each process learns a route to the same remote network.
If there are no static routes to the destination and none of the routes were redistributed, which route will be placed in the IP routing table?
A. the route learned through EIGRP
B. the route learned through OSPF
C. the route learned through RIP
D. the route with the lowest metric
E. all three routes with the router load balancing
Administrative distance is the feature that routers use in order to select the best path.
Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to least reliable (believable) with the help of an administrative distance value. Lowest Administrative distance will be chosen first.
Q42. - (Topic 1)
Which two of these statements regarding RSTP are correct? (Choose two.)
A. RSTP cannot operate with PVST+.
B. RSTP defines new port roles.
C. RSTP defines no new port states.
D. RSTP is a proprietary implementation of IEEE 802.1D STP.
E. RSTP is compatible with the original IEEE 802.1D STP.
Port Roles The role is now a variable assigned to a given port. The root port and designated port roles remain, while the blocking port role is split into the backup and alternate port roles. The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) determines the role of a port based on Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). In order to simplify matters, the thing to remember about a BPDU is there is always a method to compare any two of them and decide whether one is more useful than the other. This is based on the value stored in the BPDU and occasionally on the port on which they are received. This considered, the information in this section explains practical approaches to port roles.
Compatibility with 802.1D RSTP is able to interoperate with legacy STP protocols. However, it is important to note that the inherent fast convergence benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges.
Q43. - (Topic 2)
Which two statements describe the process identifier that is used in the command to configure OSPF on a router? (Choose two.)
Router(config)# router ospf 1
A. All OSPF routers in an area must have the same process ID.
B. Only one process number can be used on the same router.
C. Different process identifiers can be used to run multiple OSPF processes
D. The process number can be any number from 1 to 65,535.
E. Hello packets are sent to each neighbor to determine the processor identifier.
The areas can be any number from 0 to 4.2 billion and 1 to 65,535 for the Process ID. The process ID is the ID of the OSPF process to which the interface belongs. The process ID is local to the router, and two OSPF neighboring routers can have different OSPF process IDs. (This is not true of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol [EIGRP], in which the routers need to be in the same autonomous system). Cisco IOS Software can run multiple OSPF processes on the same router, and the process ID merely distinguishes one process from the other. The process ID should be a positive integer.
Q44. - (Topic 2)
Which statement describes the process ID that is used to run OSPF on a router?
A. It is globally significant and is used to represent the AS number.
B. It is locally significant and is used to identify an instance of the OSPF database.
C. It is globally significant and is used to identify OSPF stub areas.
D. It is locally significant and must be the same throughout an area.
Explanation: The Process ID for OSPF on a router is only locally significant and you can use the same number on each router, or each router can have a different number-it just doesn't matter. The numbers you can use are from 1 to 65,535. Don't get this confused with area numbers, which can be from 0 to 4.2 billion.
Q45. - (Topic 3)
Which feature does PPP use to encapsulate multiple protocols?
PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communication link. For every network layer protocol used, a separate Network Control Protocol (NCP) is provided in order to encapsulate and negotiate options for the multiple network layer protocols. It negotiates network-layer information, e.g. network address or compression options, after the connection has been established
Q46. - (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
What commands must be configured on the 2950 switch and the router to allow communication between host 1 and host 2? (Choose two.)
A. Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)# no shut down
B. Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 Router(config-if)# no shut down Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0.1 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 10 Router(config-subif)# ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0.2 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 20 Router(config-subif)# ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
C. Router(config)# router eigrp 100 Router(config-router)# network 192.168.10.0 Router(config-router)# network 192.168.20.0
D. Switch1(config)# vlan database Switch1(config-vlan)# vtp domain XYZ Switch1(config-vlan)# vtp server
E. Switch1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1 Switch1(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
F. Switch1(config)# interface vlan 1 Switch1(config-if)# ip default-gateway 192.168.1.1
The two answers B and E list all the commands needed to configure interVLAN routing. Please notice that Cisco switch 2950, 2960 only support dot1Q trunking so we don’t need to specify which trunking encapsulation to use in this case. For Cisco switches 3550 or above we have to use these commands instead:
Switch3550(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch3550(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
References: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk815/technologies_configuration_example09186a 00800949fd.shtml https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/servlet/JiveServlet/download/5669-2461/Router%20on%20a%20Stick.pdf.
Q47. - (Topic 3)
Which two statements about using the CHAP authentication mechanism in a PPP link are true? (Choose two.)
A. CHAP uses a two-way handshake.
B. CHAP uses a three-way handshake.
C. CHAP authentication periodically occurs after link establishment.
D. CHAP authentication passwords are sent in plaintext.
E. CHAP authentication is performed only upon link establishment.
F. CHAP has no protection from playback attacks.
Understanding and Configuring PPP CHAP Authentication http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk713/tk507/technologies_tech_note09186a00800b4131. shtml
One-Way and Two-Way Authentication CHAP is defined as a one-way authentication method. However, you use CHAP in both directions to create a two-way authentication. Hence, with two-way CHAP, a separate three-way handshake is initiated by each side. In the Cisco CHAP implementation, by default, the called party must authenticate the calling party (unless authentication is completely turned off). Therefore, a one-way authentication initiated by the called party is the minimum possible authentication. However, the calling party can also verify the identity of the called party, and this results in a two-way authentication. One-way authentication is often required when you connect to non-Cisco devices.
Q48. - (Topic 2)
When a router undergoes the exchange protocol within OSPF, in what order does it pass through each state?
A. exstart state > loading state > exchange state > full state
B. exstart state > exchange state > loading state > full state
C. exstart state > full state > loading state > exchange state
D. loading state > exchange state > full state > exstart state
OSPF states for adjacency formation are (in order) Down, Init, Attempt, 2-way, Exstart,
Exchange, Loading and Full.
Why Are OSPF Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State?
Q49. - (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
A technician has configured the FastEthernet 0/1 interface on Sw11 as an access link in VLAN 1. Based on the output from the show vlan brief command issued on Sw12, what will be the result of making this change on Sw11?
A. Only the hosts in VLAN 1 on the two switches will be able to communicate with each other.
B. The hosts in all VLANs on the two switches will be able to communicate with each other.
C. Only the hosts in VLAN 10 and VLAN 15 on the two switches will be able to communicate with each other.
D. Hosts will not be able to communicate between the two switches.
VLANs are local to each switch's database, and VLAN information is not passed between switches without implementing VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP). Trunks carry traffic from all VLANs to and from the switch by default but, can be configured to carry only specified VLAN traffic. Trunk links are required to pass VLAN information between switches. So Sw11 port should be trunk not access port. Additionally, there are no ports assigned to VLAN 1.
Q50. - (Topic 2)
Refer to the exhibit.
Assume that all of the router interfaces are operational and configured correctly. How will router R2 be affected by the configuration of R1 that is shown in the exhibit?
A. Router R2 will not form a neighbor relationship with R1.
B. Router R2 will obtain a full routing table, including a default route, from R1.
C. R2 will obtain OSPF updates from R1, but will not obtain a default route from R1.
D. R2 will not have a route for the directly connected serial network, but all other directly connected networks will be present, as well as the two Ethernet networks connected to R1.
Open Shortest Path First http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First
The configuration of R1 shows "router ospf 1" however, the diagram also shows that both routers should be in the backbone OSPF Area of "0". When routers are in different OSPF areas they will not form a neighbor relationship. Neighbor relationships As a link state routing protocol, OSPF establishes and maintains neighbor relationships in order to exchange routing updates with other routers. The neighbor relationship table is called an adjacency database in OSPF. Provided that OSPF is configured correctly, OSPF forms neighbor relationships only with the routers directly connected to it. In order to form a neighbor relationship between two routers, the interfaces used to form the relationship must be in the same area. Generally an interface is only configured in a single area, however you can configure an interface to belong to multiple areas. In the second area, such an interface must be configured as a secondary interface. (A neighbor state simulation shows how neighbor state changes from Down to Full Adjacency progressively with exchanging Hello, DD, Request, Update, and Ack packets).
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